Root of Trust (RoT) is a source that can always be trusted within a cryptographic system. Because cryptographic security is dependent on keys to encrypt and decrypt data and perform functions such as generating digital signatures and verifying signatures, RoT schemes generally include a hardened hardware module. A principal example is the hardware security module (HSM) which generates and protects keys and performs cryptographic functions within its secure environment.
Because this module is for all intents and purposes inaccessible outside the computer ecosystem, that ecosystem can trust the keys and other cryptographic information it receives from the root of trust module to be authentic and authorized. This is particularly important as the Internet of Things (IoT) proliferates, because to avoid being hacked, components of computing ecosystems need a way to determine information they receive is authentic. The RoT safeguards the security of data and applications and helps to build trust in the overall ecosystem.
RoT is a critical component of public key infrastructures (PKIs) to generate and protect root and certificate authority keys; code signing to ensure software remains secure, unaltered and authentic; and creating digital certificates for credentialing and authenticating proprietary electronic devices for IoT applications and other network deployments.